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“Where, after all, do universal human rights begin? In small places, close to home — so close and so small that they cannot be seen on any maps of the world. […] Unless these rights have meaning there, they have little meaning anywhere. Without concerted citizen action to uphold them close to home, we shall look in vain for progress in the larger world.” 
Eleanor Roosevelt

Eleanor Roosevelt’s leading role as Chairperson of the drafting committee of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights has been well documented. 

Human Rights Day is observed every year on 10 December — the day the United Nations General Assembly adopted, in 1948. A milestone document proclaiming the inalienable rights which everyone is inherently entitled to as a human being regardless of race, colour, religion, sex, language, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Available in more than 500 languages, it is the most translated document in the world.

2019 Theme: Youth Standing Up for Human Rights

After a year marked by the 30th anniversary celebrations of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which culminated on 20 November, 2019, our plan is to capitalise on the current momentum and spotlight the leadership role of youth in collective movements as a source of inspiration for a better future.

Under our universal call to action “Stand Up for Human rights,” we aim to celebrate the potential of youth as constructive agents of change, amplify their voices, and engage a broad range of global audiences in the promotion and protection of rights. The campaign, led by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), is designed to encourage, galvanise, and showcase how youth all over the world stand up for rights and against racism, hate speech, bullying, discrimination, and climate change, to name a few.

Why Youth?

  • Youth participation is essential to achieve sustainable development for all.
    Participation in public life is a fundamental principle of human rights. Young people are seeking to participate in all decisions that have a direct and indirect impact upon their wellbeing. They need to be heard to inform more effective decision-making and achieve sustainable development for all.
  • Youth can play a crucial role in positive change.
    Young people have always been major drivers of political, economic and social transformation. They are at the forefront of grassroots mobilizations for positive change and bring fresh ideas and solutions for a better world.
  • Empowering youth to better know and claim their rights will generate benefits globally.
    Young people are often marginalized and encounter difficulties in accessing and enjoying their rights because of their age. Upholding their rights and empowering them to better know and claim them will generate benefits globally.

Human Rights and the Sustainable Development Goals

Human rights are at the heart of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), as in the absence of human dignity we cannot drive sustainable development. Human Rights are driven by progress on all SDGs, and the SDGs are driven by advancements on human rights. Find out how UN agencies strive to put human rights at the centre of their work.

Never too young to change the world

  • Youth participation is essential to achieve sustainable development for all
  • Youth can play a crucial role in positive change
  • Empowering youth to better know and claim their rights will generate benefits globally


  • Human rights are relevant to all of us, every day
  • Our shared humanity is rooted in these universal values
  • Equality, justice and freedom prevent violence and sustain peace
  • Whenever and wherever humanity’s values are abandoned, we all are at greater risk
  • The Universal Declaration of Human Rights empowers us all
  • We need to stand up for our rights and those of others

2019 Campaign materials are available here

Welcome to the illustrated version of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Illustrations by Yacine Ait Kaci (YAK)

This illustrated edition of the UDHR was created and designed in a partnership between the artist Yacine Ait Kaci (YAK) creator of Elyx, the United Nations Regional information Centre (UNRIC), and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights – Regional Office for Europe (OHCHR).

This illustrated edition of the UDHR may be reproduced and/or translated in whole or in part without prior permission provided that it be distributed at no cost (free distribution). Publishers are required to remove the United Nations emblem from their edition and include proper credits. Translations must bear the following disclaimer: “The present work is an unofficial translation for which the publisher accepts full responsibility.”

All requests to sell excerpts, photocopies, reprints, translations of this illustrated edition of the UDHR should be addressed to permissions@un.org.

The drawings by YAK included in this illustrated edition of the UDHR are protected by copyright and can only be reproduced to illustrate the text of the UDHR.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights remains as relevant today as it was on the day in 1948 that it was proclaimed and adopted by the United Nations General Assembly. The extraordinary vision and resolve of the drafters produced a document that, for the first time, articulated the rights and freedoms to which every human being is equally and inalienably entitled.
Now available in more than 360 languages, the Declaration is the most translated document in the world — a testament to its global nature and reach. It has become a yardstick by which we measure right and wrong. It provides a foundation for a just and decent future for all, and has given people everywhere a powerful tool in the fight against oppression, impunity and affronts to human dignity.

The commitment of the United Nations to human rights stems from the Organization’s founding Charter. The international community has a duty to uphold and defend these rights. Let us ensure that those people who most need their rights protected are made aware that this Declaration exists — and that it exists for them. Let us each do our part to make these universal rights a living reality for every man, woman and child, everywhere.               
BAN Ki-moon

In perhaps the most resonant and beautiful words of any international agreement, “all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights”. The commitments made by all States in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights are in themselves a mighty achievement, discrediting the tyranny, discrimination and contempt for human beings that have marked human history.

The Universal Declaration promises to all the economic, social, political, cultural and civic rights that underpin a life free from want and fear. They are not a reward for good behaviour. They are not country-specific, or particular to a certain era or social group. They are the inalienable entitlements of all people, at all times, and in all places — people of every colour, from every race and ethnic group; whether or not they are disabled; citizens or migrants; no matter their sex, their class, their caste, their creed, their age or sexual orientation.

Human rights abuses did not end when the Universal Declaration was adopted. But since then, countless people have gained greater freedom. Violations have been prevented; independence and autonomy have been attained. Many people – though not all – have been able to secure freedom from torture, unjustified imprisonment, summary execution, enforced disappearance, persecution and unjust discrimination, as well as fair access to education, economic opportunities, and adequate resources and health-care. They have obtained justice for wrongs, and national and international protection for their rights, through the strong architecture of the international human rights legal system.

The power of the Universal Declaration is the power of ideas to change the world. It inspires us to continue working to ensure that all people can gain freedom, equality and dignity. One vital aspect of this task is to empower people to demand what should be guaranteed: their human rights.
This booklet constitutes a modest but significant contribution to that work.

Zeid Ra’ad Al Hussein
UN High Commissioner for Human Rights

Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,
Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people, Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,

Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations, Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom, Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in cooperation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms, Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge. 

Now, therefore,
The General Assembly proclaims this Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood

Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be
made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.

Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.
No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.
No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.
All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.
Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals
for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.

Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent
and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him

(1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence.
 (2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that as applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.

(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each State. 
(2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country. 

(1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.
(2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.
(1) Everyone has the right to a nationality.
(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.

(1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.
(2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
(3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.

(1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.
(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.

Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.

Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.

(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.
(2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association.

(1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.
(2) Everyone has the right to equal access to public service in his country.
(3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.

Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international cooperation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.

(1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.
(2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work. 
(3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.
(4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.

Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.

(1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.
(2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.

(1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
(2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.
(3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.

(1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.
(2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.

Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.

(1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible.
(2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society. 
(3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.

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Nigeria is both the most populous and richest country in Africa. Nigerians can be found in every part of the globe greatly representing the nation in different sectors such as entertainment, education, and business. As a country, Nigeria has a lot to offer visitor and even though it’s not the most popular destination, it has its own hidden treasures. Below you”ll find what Nigeria is most famous for around the world. Africa’s giant, Nigeria is widely known for its petroleum production and exportation as a major source of the nation’s economy accounting for about 95% of foreign exchange income and 70% of government revenue. This black nation remains the largest oil producer in Africa and the 12th largest producer in the world. 

Nigeria is of significant importance in the world because of its extraordinary geographical location, unique cultural architecture; stunning scenery, friendly inhabitants and vigorous nightlife that encourage tourists to visit this nation several times.

The population of Nigeria (2019) is 202,733,217 (source; world population review)

Nigeria, is located on the western coast of  Africa and has 36 regional states. The country capital is Abuja. Nigeria features over five hundred different ethnic groups and languages.

The life expectancy in Nigeria is the lowest in all of West Africa. The average is 54.5 years of age according to WHO data.

The average number of years spent in school here is approximately 9 years, with a national literacy rate of only 59.6%.

Nigeria Population Projections

Nigeria continues to grow faster than many other countries of similar size, but the rate is predicted to slow somewhat in the coming years with the current rate of 2.62% dwindling down to 2.04% by 2050. Nigeria’s population is predicted to hit 206 million by 2020, and 264 million by 2030 – crossing the 300 million threshold around 2036.

Components of Population Change

One birth every 4 seconds
One death every 14 seconds
One net migrant every 9 minutes
Net gain of one person every 6 seconds
Primary Health Care In Nigeria 

It should be noted that these estimates by the Nigeria National Bureau of Statistics take into account the residual effects of the very high mortality rate due to the rampant AIDS epidemic in the country. The AIDS epidemic, is still a very big killer on the entire continent of Africa. Many people and multiple leaders have taken steps to help African nations such as Nigeria fight the AIDS epidemic. Fortunately, the numbers have improved significantly over the last 15 to 20 years. There are currently 3.1 million residents in this country that are living with HIV/AIDS. (source; WHO)

Governance plays a key role in global health challenges such as tuberculosis (TB) but the role of governance in strengthening TB control in Nigeria has received little attention. Tuberculosis remains a major health problem in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs) including Nigeria, a country among the 30 high TB burden countries and one of the top three of ten countries that accounted for 80% of the total gap between TB incidence and reported cases in 2017


Accordingly, the traffic death rate still climbs exponentially. The situation is so serious that in 2016, report from WHO (World Health Organization) has announced Nigeria was the most dangerous country in Africa. 
The latest report from NBS (National Bureau of Statistics) published that 2,598 people died due to road crashes from Oct, 2017 to March, 2018.

Cancer is responsible for 72,000 deaths in Nigeria every year, with an estimated 102,000 new cases of cancer annually


Technological Advancement in Education

Technology advancement has greatly changed the education sector from chalkboard to smart boards, smartphones, tablets, virtual realities and E-libraries. Long distance learning by the use of internet and  social media to connect students with teachers and with course-mates. this has made educational accessible to more people.

Technological Advancement in Health care

Nigeria’s health care delivery has seen great improvement since the Millikan due to technological advancements. In the 20th century, many deaths were recorded from little sickness e.g. malaria, fever, even sore throats.

There was no knowledge of immunization, vaccinations and natal care, giving rise to a great increase in maternal and child mortality.

Technological Advancement in Communication and Transportation

With advent of GSM, a great stride was made in communication, especially the wireless forms. Now we can do almost everything at the comfort our rooms unlike before where we have to go travel to deliver letters, we wait for Months to receive such letters. We can travel by faster aircraft, bullet trains etc. The television use to be only NTA but now thousand of channels are available to us.

Technological Advancement in Finance and Business

Due to this advancements we pay bills, recharge our mobile phones, transfer money from one person to another, same banks and different banks even make donations and manage investments from the comfort of our homes. The ATM, e-payments, online banking platforms and funds transfer has made the business environment simpler .

Advanced Technologies yet to be explored in Nigeria

  • Internet of Things (IoT)- this technology connects virtually all devices and object to the internet by infusing machine readable codes in them.
  • Robotics– the fear of robots taking human jobs is making Nigerians to close their minds to robotic technology. These robotic technologies have great impact on industries and factories.
  • 3D Printing– this entails printing objects through a transfer of image, specification or document of the object.
  • Renewable Energy: We are still yet to explore alternative ways of generating power apart from water and crude oil. Wind turbines, photovoltaic cells, concentrated solar power, geothermal energy, ocean wave power and other biotechnology innovations are yet to be explored.
  • Medical Innovations in gene editing, protein biomarker analysis for cancer screening, cell-free fetal DNA testing, are areas that Nigeria’s health care can delve into.
  • Artificial Intelligence– this technology builds adaptive machines that learn quickly from people, environment and problem-solving scenarios.
  • High-Speed Travel: Elon Musk, the founder of the Hyperloop, is working on this project. This technology is set on solving long-distance transport issues and reduce rural-urban migration.
  • Blockchain Technology – This distributed ledger technology provides a record of transactions and confirmations of cryptocurrencies. This technology would greatly impact on Nigeria’s finance.
  • Autonomous Vehicles– This technology is concerned with self-driven motors vehicles, cycles and drones using advanced sensors and other machine communication.
  • Advanced Virtual Reality: Virtual Reality already exists in games and movies. However, advanced virtual reality-enhanced their memories or even mental wellbeing.
  • Space Colonization: Nigeria is not doing much as regards to space technologies. Space colonization entails human beings occupying gigantic spacecraft or other planets and moons.

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There are actually five types of meningitis, each classified by the cause of the disease. They are;
*Bacterial meningitis
*Viral meningitis
*Parasitic meningitis
*Fungal meningitis
*Non-infectious meningitis

Image result for meningitis
Brain affected by Meningitis

Bacterial Meningitis
This is a potentially life threatening form of the disease that can cause serious complications such as brain damage and hearing loss.

Viral Meningitis
This is more common than bacterial meningitis, and usually less severe. Most cases of viral meningitis are causedby enteroviruses, but other common viruses such as measles, mumps and chickenpox, as well as some viruses spread through mosquitoes or other insects, canalso lead to the diseases.

Parasitic Meningitis
A parasite called Naegleria Fowleri is the source for primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), a very rare type of parasitic meningitis. This form of the disease causes a brain infection that progresses rapidly-one to twelve days on average and is usually fatal.

Non-Infectious Meningitis
Like parasitic and fungal meningitis, non-infectious meningitis cannot be caught from another person. It typically occurs as the result of cancer, a head injury, brain surgery or from certain medications.

Image result for meningitis

Some symptoms that people may experience are;
*pain areas: in the back, muscles or neck
*whole body: chills, fatigue, fever, loss of appetite or shivering
*skin:blotchy rashes or red ashes
*also common: vomiting, fast breathing, fast heart rate, head ache, fear of loud sounds, light sensitivity, sleepiness, sluggishness, stiff back or stiff neck.

Vaccines are the most effective way to protect against certain types of meningitis. You can also protect yourselfand others from meningitis by maintaining healthy habits, some of which;
*Don’t smoke and avoid cigarettes
*Get plenty of rest
*Avoid close contact with people who are sick
This is especially important for people at increased risk for this disease, including:
*Young babies
*Older adults
*People with weak immune system
*People without a spleen or a spleen that doesn’t work the way it should
Pregnant women can also reduce their risk of meningitis caused by L.monocytogenes by avoiding certain foods during pregnancy.

*Doctors treat bacterial meningitis with a number of antibiotics, it is important tostart treatment as soon as possible.
*Good hygiene such as regular hand washing, not sharing food, drinks or utensils withinfected people.
*Depending on the severity of illness, you may need to be hospitalized.
*Bacterial infections require prompt treatment with intravenous antibiotics, this maybegin even before diagnosis is confirmed.
*Treatment for viral infections is mainly aimed at relieving symptoms.
As needed, treatment may also include: Intravenous fluids, anti-convulsants for any seizures, pain relievers

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HIV attacks and destroys the infection-fighting CD4cells
 of the immunesystem. The loss of CD4 cells makes it difficult for the body
to fight off infections and certain cancers. Without treatment, HIV can
gradually destroy the immune system and advance to AIDS.


HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus, which is the virus that causes HIV infection. The abbreviation “HIV” can refer to the virus or to HIV infection. 


AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. AIDS is the most advanced stage of HIV infection.



Symptoms such as fever, weakness, and weight loss may be a sign that a person’s HIV has advanced to AIDS. However, a diagnosis of AIDS is based on the following criteria:•A drop in CD4 count to less than 200 cells/mm3.A CD4 count measures the number of CD4 cells in a sample of blood.
OR•Thepresence of certain opportunistic infections.•Although an AIDS diagnosis indicates severe damage to the immune system, HIV medicines can still help people at this stage of HIV infection.

•People transmit HIV in bodily fluids,including:
•vaginal secretions
•anal fluids
•breast milk

The spread of HIV from a woman with HIV to her child during pregnancy, childbirth,or breastfeeding is called mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

•Joint pain
•Muscle aches
•Sore throat
•Unintentional weight loss
•Enlarged glands
•Red rashes

These symptoms might also result from the immune system fighting off
many types of viruses.


•During this time, the virus continues to  develop and cause immune system and organ damage. Without medication that prevents the replication of the virus, this slow process can continue for an average of around 10 years.•A person living with HIV often experiences no symptoms, feels well, and appears healthy

•blurred vision
•Diarrhea,which is usually persistent or chronic
•dry cough
•a fever of over 100 °F (37 °C) lasting for weeks
•night sweats
•permanent tiredness
•shortness of breath, or dyspnea
•swollen glands lasting for weeks
•unintentional weight loss
•white spots on the tongue or mouth

•Candidiasis of the bronchi, trachea etc
•Invasive cervical cancer
•Herpes simplex

•No cure is currently available for HIV or AIDS.
•However, treatments can stop the progression of the condition and
allow most people living with HIV the opportunity to live a long and
relatively healthy life.
•Starting ART early in the progression of the virus is crucial.
This improves quality of life, extends life expectancy,and reduces
the risk of transmission, according to the WHO’s guidelines from June 2013.
•More effective and better-tolerated treatments have evolved that can
improve general health and quality of life by taking as little as one pill
per day.

•Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the use of HIV medicines to treat HIV
infection. People on ART take a combination of HIV medicines
(called an HIVregimen) every day. HIV medicines protect the immune
system by blocking HIV at different stages of the HIV life cycle.

ART can’t cure HIV, but HIV medicines help people with HIV live longer, healthier lives. HIV medicines also reduce the risk of HIV transmission (the spread of HIV to others).

•Use of sterilized instruments and proper disposal of instruments.
•Avoid sharing sharp objects.
•HIV medicines, given to women with HIV during pregnancy and childbirth
and to their babies after birth, reduce the risk of mother-to-child
transmission of HIV.

•Shaking hands
•Mouth to mouth resuscitation and casual contact
•Touching unbroken skin
•Using the same toilets
•Sharing towels
•Sharing cutleries

Adherence: Taking HIV medication as prescribed is absolutely essential to effective treatment.Missing even a few doses might jeopardize the treatment.
General health: Taking steps to avoid illness and other infections is key. People living with HIVshould seek to improve overall health through regular exercise, a balanced,nutritious diet, and the cessation of any drugs, including tobacco.
Additional precautions: People living with AIDS should take extra precautions to prevent any exposure toinfection, especially around animals. Avoid coming into contact with animalfeces and pet litter.

Doctors also recommend the meticulous and regular washing of hands. Antiretrovirals reduce the need for these precautions.

Common misconceptions about AIDS and HIV are reducing as understanding of the disease increases.
However,stigma around the condition continues in many parts of the world. People living with HIV may feel excluded, persecuted, and isolated.
An HIV diagnosis can be very distressing, and feelings of anxiety or depression are common. If you feel anxious or have symptoms of depression, seek medical help immediately


HIV is a misunderstood and potentially dangerous disease that reduces the effectiveness of the immune system in combating other infections.

Advances in modern medicine person living with HIV can have a near-normal life expectancy and active lifestyle. A person receiving antiretroviral therapy must adhere strictly to their regime for the most effective results.•A person living with AIDS can revert the condition to HIV through adhering to treatment.


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One of the most essential problems facing many tertiary institutions in Nigeria today is the problem of cultism.Almost all the long existing institutions of higher learning have experienced the menace of cultism for one time or another. As we have today, the menace and the aggressiveness of cult members and cult related violent clashes and activities on most tertiary institutions campuses have caused the sudden death of lecturers, students and other innocent citizens.
The Oxford Concise Dictionary of Sociology (1996) gives the sociological definition of cult as a small group or religious activities whose beliefs are typically secret, esoteric and individualistic. Lexican Webster’s Dictionary defines secret cult as a group of people who share a common cause and whose mode of meetings and agenda are unknown to the public and where initiation into rank and file is usually done in secret.
Oxford Advance Learners’ Dictionary defines cultism as a system of religious worship especially one that is expressed in rituals. In summary, cultism can be defined as a ritual practice by group of people whose membership, admission, policy,and initiation formalities as well as their mode of operations are kept secret with their activities having negative effects on both members and non-members alike.
 Despite the fact that all manners of evil(such as examination malpractice, rape, robbery, arson, maiming, murder,killing, intimidation of fellow students and lecturers for good grades, love(girlfriend), clashes of rival cult group among others) has become of cultism,many students of tertiary institutions still find it fashionable to engage init for different reasons. .Some of these reasons are explained below.
– Search for responsibility: Some students join cults group in order to perform certain services for the members. For example, some students may engage in cultism in order to fight for perceived injustice in their campuses against their members.                                                                                                  – Search for security: Many students of tertiary institutions, especially the female students join cult groups in order to protect themselves while some male students join to secure their girlfriends.
-Search for social identity: There are also students who join cult group for popularity. They want to make name and to be regarded as powerful people. For these students, to belong to a cult group is a way of achieving prestige and greatness. They belief that they could influence decisions on campus and that they could as well dictate the pace during the student union and students representative elections.
Search for satisfaction of one’s aspirations and needs: some students also engage in cults group in order to satisfy their desires, aspirations and needs. Example of this is that a student may belong to a cult group which part of her objective is to ensure the success of her members in academic examination.
Search for respect and recognition: Some students join campus cults to gain respect and recognition and to acquire protection against sanctions from members of the community. Some students also join cult groups for reasons based on past negative experiences at the family level. There are others who join cults because they want to create avenues to exhibit and diffuse frustrations from the family, schools and society. There are students who join cult group for reason of wealth (financial assistance) while others join cults to hide their weaknesses (inferiority complex).  Some are forced to join while others feel that the objectives of the cults are laudable and worthwhile. Other reason why students engage in cultism might be influenced by parental and home background, because parents who are members of secret cult themselves may not see anything wrong in their children’s involvement in cultism. Students who have emotional sickness who are possessed by the demon may join cult groups to unleash terror on the society that has caused emotional distress and can grow up to become criminals because of the evil spirit in them. Some students also become cultist because their friends are members. Some students join cult because certain lecturers and administration are members of secret cults. Non-conducive learning facilities, environment and inadequate welfare programs for students can also encourage students to engage in cultism and inadequate religious and moral instructions and education can lure students to embracing cult groups and cult activities. A lot of lives and properties have been destroyed through cult violence. Young undergraduates who are supposed to be leaders in future have fallen victims of trigger-happy cultists.
Another effect of cultism is that, before and during examinations, students are always organizing night vigil and prayer for a successful end of exams and or semester. They always sleep with one eye closed. And because of (this) frequent cult disturbances and insecurity, some parents now prefer off campus accommodation for their children in tertiary institutions for fear of being victims of campus cultists’ rampage. Some members of cult groups cause bodily harm that may result to physical injuries and or death especially during their initiation ceremonies. Closely related to this is the fact that some of them risk health problems because of harmful drugs such as marijuana, cocaine among others that they take. Cult group often subvert (or undermine) the genuine students’unionism and destabilize university administrations, which do not condone their nefarious activities.                    HOW TO CURB THE MENACE OF CULTISM
Over the past two decades, various attempts have been made to deal with the problem of cultism.The various measures taken include the enactment of decree 47 of 1989 that pronounced a number of jail term for any cultist found guilty. Also the Federal Republic of Nigeria under Chief Olusegun Obasanjo in 2000 issued a three- month ultimatum to all vice-chancellors to eradicate cultism from the campuses. Some higher institutions also set up anti-cult groups consisting of the student body itself and some security agents to monitor and check the activities of cultists on campus. Despite the various measures, it appears the proliferation of cult groups and their dastard acts continue unabated. However to curb this menace,the following are veritable. Government and non-governmental agencies and the media should step up their campaigns against cultism and its destructive tendencies. The evil nature of cultism should be explained to young people in schools at all levels through sensitization, seminars, workshops, symposium,posters, handbills and public lectures. Parent should desist from being members of secret cults and also prevent their children from joining bad group.Religious and moral instructions and education should be re-introduced in all spheres of lives and the decadent society should be spiritually reawakened by joint effort of parents, religious organizations, and government. Parents should be more vigilant concerning the activities of their children within and outside the home. Also, there must be improved facilities and improved living conditions on campuses so as to minimize perceived strain in the social system which underlines cultism on the campuses. The school authorities of higher institutions of learning must show their readiness and determination to eradicate cultism. They must brace up to the challenges of the cultism, which has become one of the most potent evils of the recent time. It is very necessary for the committee of vice chancellor of the Nigerian universities to adopt a common and uniform approach to solving the problem of cultism. The issue of former cultists who sometimes return to universities as staff must be looked into. Students who do not belong to cults and some security agents can be organized into anti-cult vanguards or groups to watch or monitor and check the activities of cultists on campus and report cult members to the university authorities or to law enforcement agents. This means that school authorities as posited by must intensify armed patrol and surveillance on campuses.

Having established in the course of dealing with the topic: various scholarly definitions of cultism, various reasons why students engage in it, various effects that cult groups and their activities has on students and various measures that should be adopted to curb the menace. It is therefore imperative on the part of parents, university authorities, religious groups, government and non-governmental organization sand agencies to let all hands be on deck to combat this ugly trend that is gaining ground in most tertiary institutions.
The youths as we all admitted are the future of our country, and the quality of these youths determines the successor otherwise of our country. Therefore, we must all rise up to confront this menace so as to savage the future of our country.

  Having established in the course of dealing with the topic: various scholarly definitions of cultism, various reasons why students engage in it, various effects that cult groups and their activities has on students and various measures that should be adopted to curb the menace. It is therefore imperative on the part of parents, university authorities, religious groups, government and non-governmental organizations and agencies to let all hands be on deck to combat this ugly trend that is gaining ground in most tertiary institutions.
The youths as we all admitted are the future of our country, and the quality of these youths determines the successor otherwise of our country. Therefore, we must all rise up to confront this menace so as to savage the future of our country.

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Category : Uncategorized

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The main goal of a teacher is to teach a
student, the indicator of a teachers success is
the show of excitement or not by the students.

The world is evolving and so is everything in
and around it and so is teaching and learning
process. Unfortunately and depressing, the
phrase “that was hos I was taught” has refused
to die even from the mouth of teachers,
people who are supposedly more learned than
ordinary people

Things change, old things become obsolete and
boring, then boring and boring. Imagine going
to hajj on camel? Farming a hectare of land
with a hoe? Imagine daddy buying you a CRT
television? Don’t you hate that imagination?

Then so is a student, he hate the old ways. The
old ways is writing on leaves, rocks, animal
skins, talk, talk, talk and talk e.t.c. the new way
is that students want to get excited about
what they learn. Compare a company that uses
electric fans in their offices to the company the
have air conditioners in their offices

The students definitely cant learn the way we
teach (the old ways) so we need to teach the
way they learn (modern way).

“people around me professionally believe that I
embrace change with joy. Statistically, shaking
your dice and trying something new brings
more rewards often than disaster. In-fact,
stagnant educational system is a recipe for
disaster” Heather Walpert Gawron.

To make student learn and love learning is by
making them do the following

  • Involve them in the teaching process
  • Teach them like they are playing
  • You may teach them individually if required
    by observing them individually
  • Create context that interest them so that
    they can begin to make observations
  • You may teach them individually if required
    by observing them individually
  • You may teach them individually if required
    by observing them individually 
  • Create context that interest them so that
    they can begin to make observations
  • Give them opportunity to engage in talks
    and discussion with their peers and class
  • Give them opportunity to engage with
    experts (videos in our case)
  • Make the subject matter practical i.e drama
    in arts, excursions in commerce and
    experiments in science.
  • Make them active learners by making them
    feel safe of embarrassments from the
  • Encourage them to take risks because
    knowledge is a challenge and the only way
    we can face challenges is by taking risks…
  • Once again. ”a stagnant educational system is
    a recipe for disaster”

Thanks for Your time

Lecture by Mallam Misbau K. Yusuf 

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Write up on June 12 1993 Election

Category : Uncategorized

The pulse of the nation beats heavy. Excitement and apprehension together leased spaces in many homes. Democracy, a system that amplifies the voices of the people and tramples and thrashes on dictatorship, was about to undergo a towering test. It was on June 12, 1993. The Social Democratic Party presidential candidate, Moshood Kashimawo Olawale Abiola, held the banner for his party. The National Republican Convention candidate, Alhaji Bashir Tofa, did the same for his party.  A military dictator, Ibrahim Babangida, whose hors d’oeuvres were the aura and opulence of the Presidential Villa, was the unfair umpire.

Chief Moshood Kashimawo Olawale Abiola GCFR  (24 August 1937 to 7 July 1998

The Igbo across the nation closed their shops. The Yoruba dumped their farms and shut down their businesses. The Fulani abandoned their cows and the Hausa thronged polling stations. And the great people of Niger Delta took time off from their crude oil locations and together from all regions, Nigerians recorded their footprints and fingerprints on the pad of history. Everything stood still for history.  Voter turnout spiked especially in the South on Election Day. Nigerians did not care that candidates on the ballot were both Muslims. At the end of the day, Abiola received over eight million votes winning in 19 states. The NRC’s Tofa received over six million votes and won in 10 states.  Of the over total 14 million votes, Abiola won almost 60 per cent.

Amb. Babagana Kingibe Chief MKO Abiola’s running mate in June 12th 1993 Elections

Then, the demolition announcement came in the air.  Self-styled Evil Genius Babangida annulled the election and trashed the results. He claimed he was compelled to do so because of security threats to the enthronement of a democratic government at that time. He said he knew that Abiola’s new democratic government would sooner than later be toppled through another military coup d’état, which he said his government wanted to avoid. Years later, he admitted: “June 12 was accepted by Nigerians as the best of elections in Nigeria. It was free and fair. But unfortunately, we cancelled that election. I used the word unfortunately, for the first time. To be honest with you, the situation was not ripe to hand over at the time. Forget about the wrong things that happened in politics”.

Across Nigeria, protests against injustice were vehement. Pressure was too harsh to bear for the nullifier-umpire, Babangida, who had to “step aside” for Ernest Shonekan, a man from Abiola’s neighbourhood.  Shonekan then took charge in Aso Rock as leader of a National Interim Government.  Before Shonekan could settle in with governance, he was toppled in a military coup d’état on November 17, 1993.  Sani Abacha, Babangida’s one-time Chief of Army Staff, was the arrowhead.  Abiola continued the fight to reclaim his mandate; but Abacha wasn’t having that. Abacha’s reign of terror snuffed lives out of many political personalities. Many had to flee abroad escaping the junta’s cold hands of death. The winner of the 1993 election was then slammed behind bars. One day on June 8, 1998, Abacha slept and did not wake up. Gen. Abdulsalami Abubakar replaced him as Head of State. Under Abdulsalami’s watch, Abiola was eventually killed by wicked and invisible hands. He died mysteriously July 7, 1998; the day that he was due to be set free from incarceration.

M.K.O. Abiola

Since the death of Abiola, democracy has reeled in the throes of mourning and pain. Abiola’s name was gradually fading off in history, and from the minds of many who were too young to remember the sacrifice made by many for the blossoming and entrenchment of Nigeria’s nascent democracy.

On Wednesday, June 6, in Abuja, President Muhammadu Buhari announced that in Nigeria and henceforth, Democracy Day will be celebrated on June 12 of every year in place of May 29.  “June 12, 1993 was far more symbolic of democracy in the Nigerian context than May 29”, said Buhari in a press statement. This was the sweetest news I’ve received from Nigeria in 20 years. Since the announcement, controversies had suffused the air. Some call it politics; some call it pandering to the electorate; and many others call it justice at last.  I leave politics to politicians and their screaming acolytes. I leave partisanship to partisans and their blind adherents. We are today discussing the honour of a man who died for a cause in a nation where, if you die fighting, you may have died in vain. If Abiola couldn’t be honoured as a living, he remains the honourable.  And honouring the honourable is an honourable thing to do.  Anyone carrying the headache of politicians winning one election or the other is free to do so. You will have to deal with the nagging effects of your migraine all by yourself with help from none. Many Nigerians don’t care who wins or loses the 2019 presidential election.

M.K.O. Abiola on Election day (1993)

History records it on this day that what others couldn’t do, Buhari has done. What Abiola’s kinsman, President Olusegun Obasanjo hated to do, Buhari has done. What Umaru Yar’Adua couldn’t do, this president has done. What Goodluck Jonathan attempted to do and was resisted by powers-that-be, this retired General from Daura has done. And he has done well. Elder statesmen in any society are mighty men behind the scenes, not cupbearers and rabble rousers in the frontline. I don’t agree with Mr. President all the time, but he is one of Nigeria’s elder statesmen.  He has done what is right and just. For the condemning voices who perceive Buhari’s move as politics-as-usual, you are probably right. But do you remember that this President has taken off the military uniform soldiering around? Do you know who he is now and what he does?

When a lawyer shows up in the courtrooms, he plays the lawyer’s game. When a doctor shows up in the emergency room, he plays the doctor’s game. When a pastor bounces up and about on the pulpit, he does what pastors do-preach the word. When politicians make decisions and announcements, what do you think they should play? Should they play a doctor’s game?  Politicians play politics. Good ones among them play good politics. That’s their crafts. Buhari is a politician, not an Imam and no longer a soldier. He must play politics. And he must play it good. What is important to many is that he just did what is honourable with the honour conferred on Abiola. Abiola’s family members are appreciative and not angry.  And with many Nigerians I know, we are appreciative and not angry either.

Abuja-National-Stadium, renamed as Moshood Abiola Stadium

But, if Mr. President thinks this masterstroke seals the election  deal in the South-West heading on to the 2019 election, he should think again. Honouring MKO with the June 12 declaration has only done one thing: “Commitment reinforcement”. Those who are committed to Buhari remain unwaveringly committed. Those who despise and hate the President become stronger in their hatred and more ferocious in their venoms. Will this move shift the needle to radical change-of-mind at the polling booth? If you think so; then you don’t know Nigerians. This fanfare will wear out in a week and then we go back to where we were before now.  But with this gesture, I salute Mr. President.

Abiola In Bulgaria

Copied from the the Punch-newspaper website

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The Debate About School Assignment Freelance writers

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